|Common Name: Silymarin|
|Source: Milk Thistle|
kligman ingredient evaluation
|Penetration: Under analysis|
|Biochemical Mechanism: Under analysis|
|Level of Evidence: Under analysis|
What is Silymarin?
Silymarin is a naturally occurring compound that offers anti-oxidant effects for skin that prolong the cell life. The components of silymarin are: Silibinin, silydianin, and silychristin. These compounds are used to protect and treat the skin from oxidative stress caused by ultraviolet radiation1.
Silymarin is an extract isolated from the seeds of milk thistle1.
How does it work?
Topical application of Silibinin prior to, or immediately after, UV irradiation has been found to inhibit thymine dimer positive cell generation that UV induces in the epidermis (5). This research has also shown that terminal sunburn cell formation that is again induced by UV is inhibited too, when Silibinin is applied.
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Several experiments confirm that silymarin also owns anti-inflammatoryvand anticarcinogenic properties. This includes photoprotection against the sunburn response, DNA damage and non-melanoma skin cancer, by reduction of hydrogen peroxide produced by UVB in the skin, modulation of reactive oxygen species free radical-associated pathways and repair of DNA caused by UVB1. Based on that it is clear that silymarin can improve the photoprotective effect of available sunscreens against UV light.
Silymarin has also showed photoprotective abilities such as reduction of hydrogen peroxide produced by UVB in the skin, modulation of reactive oxygen species free radical-associated pathways and repair of DNA caused by UVB1.
An in vivo study used Pure Silymarin (1 mg/cm2 skin area) and topically applied to mouse skin 20-25 min before UVB exposure. They found that the treatment prevented UV light-induced infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes, which are responsible for the induction of UV-induced suppression of CHS and oxidative stress, which is responsible for numerous skin disorders including photoaging and photocarcinogenesis2.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22990400 - Modulation of cutaneous wound healing by silymarin in rats.
in vivo or in vitro tests does it penetrate?
An in vivo study was done to determine the ability of silymarin to be absorbed by the skin, and showed that silibilin, the most abundant and biologically active of the three components, demonstrated significant absorption into the skin of a nude mice. In addition, the study concluded that the topical application of silymarin for up to 24 hours does not cause skin irritation3.
An in vitro study was done in a tube to evaluate the effect of silymarin on collagenase, elastase and hyaluronidase activity. The results reviled that silymarin was able to effectively inhibit the activities of isolated hyaluronidase, collagenase and elastase what results in anti-aging outcome by preventing sunlight-induced damage and (photo)aging4.
Scientific consensus on effectiveness
Researches seem to reach an agreement about the fact that the treatment doses of 0.5 or 1.0 mg/cm2 of silymarin can protect skin from locally UVB-induced immunosuppression. Furthermore, the effectiveness of silymarin compared to silibilin is not statistically significant as silibilin constitutes around 90% of sylimarin and the two materials can be used interchangeably5.
Raja K Sivamani, Jared R. Jagdeo, Peter Elsner, Howard I. Maibach. (2015).Silimarin. In Cosmeceuticals and Active Cosmetics (Third edition), (pp.113-115). Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.
Katiyar, S. K. (2002). Treatment of silymarin, a plant flavonoid, prevents ultraviolet light-induced immune suppression and oxidative stress in mouse skin. International Journal of Oncology, 21(6), 1213–1222.
Hung, C., Lin, Y., Zhang, L., Chang, C., & Fang, J. (2010). Topical delivery of silymarin constituents via the skin route. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 31(1), 118–126. doi: 10.1038/aps.2009.186
Vostálová, J., Tinková, E., Biedermann, D., Kosina, P., Ulrichová, J., & Rajnochová Svobodová, A. (2019). Skin Protective Activity of Silymarin and its Flavonolignans. Molecules, 24(6). doi: 10.3390/molecules24061022Katiyar, S. K. (2005). Silymarin and skin cancer prevention: anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects (Review). International Journal of Oncology, 26(1), 169–176.