|Common Name: Ferulic Acid|
|INCI: Ferulic Acid|
|Source: Rice, Wheat, Oats|
kligman ingredient evaluation
|Penetration: Under analysis|
|Biochemical Mechanism: Under analysis|
|Level of Evidence: Under analysis|
Ferulic acid ([E]-3-[4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl] prop-2-enoic acid) belongs to the phenolic acids group which are secondary metabolites of varying chemical structures and biological properties. Ferulic acid is a free radical scavenger, but also an inhibitor of enzymes that catalyze free radical generation and an enhancer of scavenger enzyme activity.
Ferulic acid is most commonly found in whole grains, spinach, parsley, grapes, rhubarb, and cereal seeds, mainly wheat, oats, rye, and barley.
How it works?
The antioxidant potential of FA can usually be attributed to its structural characteristics. FA, because of its phenolic nucleus and unsaturated side chain can readily form a resonance stabilized phenoxy radical, which accounts for its potent antioxidant activity. Any reactive radical colliding with FA easily abstracts a hydrogen atom to form phenoxy radical. This radical is highly resonance stabilized since the unpaired electron may be present not only on the oxygen but it can be delocalized across the entire molecule. Additional stabilization of the phenoxy radical is provided by the extended conjugation in the unsaturated side chain. This resonance stabilization accounts for the effective antioxidant potential of FA. Moreover this phenoxy radical is unable to initate or propagate a radical chain reaction, and its most probable fate is a collision and condensation with another ferulate radical to yield the dimer curcumin. Such coupling may lead to a host of products, all of which still contain phenolic hydroxyl groups capable of radical scavenging. The presence of a second phenolic hydroxyl group substantially enhances the radical scavenging activity due to additional resonance stabilization and o-quinone formation.
Ferulic acid shows an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, anticancer, and antidiabetic effects. It is widely applied in skin care formulations as a photoprotective agent (sunscreens), delayer of skin photoaging processes, and brightening component
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01118.x - Caffeic Acid and Ferulic Acid Inhibit UVA‐Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase‐1 through Regulation of Antioxidant Defense System in Keratinocyte HaCaT Cells.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5125956/ - Pretreatment of Ferulic Acid Protects Human Dermal Fibroblasts against Ultraviolet A Irradiation.
http://www.ijnpnd.com/article.asp?issn=2231-0738;year=2014;volume=4;issue=4;spage=203;epage=213;aulast=Ambothi - Ferulic acid prevents ultraviolet-B radiation induced oxidative DNA damage in human dermal fibroblasts.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0955286311000635?via%3Dihub - Ferulic acid, a phenolic phytochemical, inhibits UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinases in mouse skin via posttranslational mechanisms.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12015157 - Ferulic acid antioxidant protection against hydroxyl and peroxyl radical oxidation in synaptosomal and neuronal cell culture systems in vitro: structure-activity studies.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20692328 - A comparison of skin delivery of ferulic acid and its derivatives: evaluation of their efficacy and safety.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18603326 - A topical antioxidant solution containing vitamins C and E stabilized by ferulic acid provides protection for human skin against damage caused by ultraviolet irradiation.
https://www.jidonline.org/article/S0022-202X(15)32491-X/fulltext - Ferulic Acid Stabilizes a Solution of Vitamins C and E and Doubles its Photoprotection of Skin.