kligman ingredient evaluation
what it is, source, how it works (specific radical species it targets), other benefits, clinical trials with concentration, in vivo or in vitro tests, does it penetrate, scientific consensus on effectiveness,
What is Resveratrol?
Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol, possessing two phenol rings linked to each other by an ethylene bridge.
Resveratrol is present in large amounts in red grapes, nuts, pomegranate, and berries.
How it works?
Resveratrol antioxidant activity depends upon the arrangement of functional groups on nuclear structure. Therefore, configuration, substitution, and total hydroxyl groups number substantially influence several mechanisms of antioxidant activity, such as radical scavenging and metal ion chelation abilities. Previous studies showed that hydroxyl group in 4′ position is not the sole determinant for antioxidant activity, but also the 3- and 5-OH groups. The study of antioxidant effect against hydroxyl (•OH) and hydroperoxyl (•OOH) radicals in aqueous simulated media using density functional quantum chemistry and computational kinetics methods revealed that trans-resveratrol may act as an efficient •OOH, and also presumably •OOR, radical scavenger.
Resveratrol is able to penetrate the skin barrier and antiaging activity. It has been shown that formulations with resveratrol can stimulate the proliferation of fibroblasts and contributing to the increase in the concentration of collagen III. It has antiproliferative, anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2944869/ - Protective Action of Resveratrol in Human Skin: Possible Involvement of Specific Receptor Binding Sites.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00403-017-1740-5 - Skin permeation and antioxidant efficacy of topically applied resveratrol - in vitro and in vivo experiments.
http://www.jbc.org/content/276/25/22586.long - Specific Structural Determinants Are Responsible for the Antioxidant Activity and the Cell Cycle Effects of Resveratrol